Los Angeles County Museum of Art

Queen of Sweden Says Her Old Palatial Home is Haunted by Friendly Ghosts Ghosts of the latter type, once they were caught, would be punished by being sent back to the underworld and having any honors or offerings they had from their living relatives taken from them and given to those who had no children and no chance of being remembered. If the ghost was just there to cause harm and had no injustice to resolve, then the exorcism was a simple matter of expelling the ghost and bringing him to justice. If the ghost had suffered a wrong, then the process could be more complicated. Assyrian Cylinder depicting an exorcism. Assyrian ghost stories and exorcisms have themes in common with stories from many other cultures around the world. The idea of ghosts being spirits with unfinished business is also found in ancient China and Greece.

Assyrian Agricultural Technology

When did ancient months start? In the eighth century B. The day calendars had been in use for the greater part of a millennium. In many places, month lengths immediately after that change were not fixed, but were based instead upon observation of the sky. Month length at that time was simply the number of days that passed from one new lunar crescent to the next.

Babylon is the most famous city from ancient Mesopotamia whose ruins lie in modern-day Iraq 59 miles (94 kilometres) southwest of Baghdad. The name is thought to derive from bav-il or bav-ilim which, in the Akkadian language of the time, meant ‘Gate of God’ or `Gate of the Gods’ and `Babylon’ coming from city owes its fame (or infamy) to the many references the Bible makes to.

Halloran The following lexicon contains 1, Sumerian logogram words and 2, Sumerian compound words. A logogram is a reading of a cuneiform sign which represents a word in the spoken language. Sumerian scribes invented the practice of writing in cuneiform on clay tablets sometime around B. Medieval Arabic sources used the name ‘Iraq’ as a geographical term for the area in the south and center of the modern republic.

These bilingual dictionaries date from the Old Babylonian period B. The earliest and most important words in Sumerian had their own cuneiform signs, whose origins were pictographic, making an initial repertoire of about a thousand signs or logograms. Beyond these words, two-thirds of this lexicon now consists of words that are transparent compounds of separate logogram words.

I have greatly expanded the section containing compounds in this version, but I know that many more compound words could be added. The ‘accents’ and subscript numerals do not affect the pronunciation. The numeration system is a convention to inform Assyriologists which, for example, of the many cuneiform signs that have the reading du actually occurs on the tablet.

Sumerian Lexicon

Recommended Reading Author Anonymous. The story was crafted and reworked by various Mesopotamian and Near Eastern cultures including the Sumerians, Akkadians, Babylonians, Assyrians, Hittites and others. The tablet Akkadian version known as the Standard Synthetic Version, dates to around c.

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Share An officer who is charged with the care of the sacristy, the church, and their contents. In ancient times many duties of the sacristan were performed by the doorkeepers ostiarii , later by the mansionarii and the treasurers. The Decretals of Gregory IX lib. Nowadays the sacristan is elected or appointed. The under-sacristan custos is also mentioned in the Decretals lib.

He was the assistant of the sacristan, was subject to the archdeacon, and discharged duties very similar to those of the sacristan. Now the office is hardly ever attached to a benefice, but is usually a salaried position. The Council of Trent desired that, according to the old canons, clerics should hold such offices; but in most churches, on account of the difficulty or impossibility of obtaining clerics, laymen perform many of the duties of the sacristan and under-sacristan.

Altar Societies There are altar societies in connection with most parish churches. The duties of members vary according to circumstances, in some instances including those which ordinarily fall within the sacristan’s province, such as the vestments and altar vessels, making ready for the priest’s Mass, and so on, but as a general thing they consist of the payment of yearly dues into a fund for the maintenance and repair of the accessories used in the ceremonies of the Church and usually also of a certain amount of labor for this purpose.

Altar societies differ from tabernacle societies in that their work is for the benefit of the church to which they are attached. The Sodality of St. Its object is to induce all its members to perform their duties piously and in a manner befitting the ceremonies in which they participate, for the glory of God and the edification of the faithful. The rules compiled by Father Basile bind the members to absolute silence in church, devout genuflexion when passing before the Blessed Sacrament, and the clear pronunciation of the words of the liturgical prayers.

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This may have simply intended “Place of Fish” or may have indicated a goddess associated with fish or the Tigris, possibly originally of Hurrian origin. Kouyunjik was, according to Layard , a Turkish name, and it was known as Armousheeah by the Arabs, [6] and is thought to have some connection with the Kara Koyunlu dynasty. This whole extensive space is now one immense area of ruins overlaid in parts by new suburbs of the city of Mosul.

Early history[ edit ] Nineveh was one of the oldest and greatest cities in antiquity. The deep sounding at Nineveh uncovered layers now dated to early Hassuna culture period.

Churches of the Syriac Rite. The majority of the Iraqi Christians belong to the branches of Syriac Christianity whose followers are mostly ethnic Assyrians adhering to both the East Syriac Rite and West Syriac Rite. Syriac Orthodox Church; Assyrian Church .

The writer notes that this had been foretold by the prophet Jonah, son of Amittai, the same famous Jonah who was swallowed by a fish. But the majority of the population, the small landholders and farmers, found themselves increasingly in debt to the upper class. An oppressive economic disparity developed and many fell into poverty and landlessness.

This dire situation called forth the condemnation of prophets both in Israel and Judah. The first prophets whose speeches came to be recorded in books arose at this time; they have come to be called the classical prophets. Amos was the first. He was a prophet from a small village in Judah who went north to Bethel, the sanctuary city of Jeroboam II, and exposed the social destructiveness of royal policy. Hosea another prophet and not to be confused with Hoshea, the last king of Israel was himself an Israelite who compared Israelite social practice to the norms of the Mosaic covenant and found it wanting: Micah and Isaiah brought the same critique to bear against the powerful in Judah.

We learn more about these prophets and their messages later. After the death of Jeroboam II, Israel becomes increasingly unstable. Zechariah, the last ruler of the Jehu dynasty, was assassinated after six months in office by rival Shallum, who was himself assassinated after one month by Menahem. When Ahaz Judah saw what he was up against, he sought a defensive alliance with Tiglath-Pileser against Pekah and Rezin and paid him tribute from the temple treasury.

Tiglath-Pileser then marched against Rezin, killed him, and captured Damascus, the capital of Syria.

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The new interpretation highlighted here seeks to answer some of the many nagging questions about the various water installations and how they related to each other, both in time and function. Before we dig in, be forewarned: Much of what follows will resonate only with hard-core afficionados of Jerusalem antiquities! Note that North is to the right. The Gihon Spring has always been there, of course!

Ancient Assyrian Art. At the Extreme northern of Mesopotamia settled the Assyrian people who with a long history in the area were subjected to the Kingdoms .

What Is the Didache? In the recent exchange that I posted on the blog dealing with the existence of Q the document known as the Didache was mentioned — especially by guest contributor Alan Garrow, who thinks that the Didache was a source used by the authors of Matthew and Luke. The Didache is almost always assumed to have quoted the Gospels — or at least the traditions found in the Gospels — not vice versa. But what is the Didache pronounced DID-ah-kay? I better do so! In that edition I talk about what the book is, whether it is one book or several documents that have been cut and pasted together, when it was written, and so on.

That may be useful information for the blog, and so I will give it over the course of two or three posts. I have edited my Introduction slightly to make it a bit more user friendly it was written for scholars and advanced students. Here is the opening of the Introduction, where I explain briefly something about its discovery and contents.

Found by Philotheos Bryennios in in the Library of the Holy Sepulchre in Constantinople and published by him ten years later, the Didache was immediately seen to be one of most important literary remains of early Christianity outside of the New Testament.

Mesopotamian Ghostbusters: The Evil Acts of Assyrian Ghosts and How They Were Vanquished

At the Extreme northern of Mesopotamia settled the Assyrian people who with a long history in the area were subjected to the Kingdoms of most powerful peoples of the South for a while. Of course many elements that contributed to shape the Assyrian Culture were inherited from the Sumerians and that was manifested in their creations; in which techniques and artistic procedures were set over the rich Knowledge inherited. The first Kings of the nation had his residence in Ashur, until adverse desert climate conditions as well as the attack of the Babylonians neighbors led rulers to the decision to build a second capital at Nineveh.

They brought with them their common language and their artistic traditions from Sumer, but modified them subsequently resulting in a bypass that emerged from the fusion of Sumerian roots and language and the arts of Babylon. Assyrian State grew up around four cities fed by the Tigris waters.

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Tuesday, July 31, at As the creators of the new website explain, “The Assyrian culture is rich and vibrant, representing an extraordinarily special way of life, and since Assyrians may live in virtually any part of the world today, we want to make it truly easy for them to reach out to others who share this special history and culture. Finding a partner who shares your morals, values, language and culture is so vital when seeking a quality relationship, so we are connecting Assyrians with potential partners with whom they can really identify and fall in love!

To preserve this culture and language for future generations, marriage to other Assyrians with whom we truly identify is essential. That is why Assyrian Cupid exists — to make these unions possible! Assyrians are a distinct ethnic group whose origins come from ancient Mesopotamia. Today, many Assyrians are scattered around the globe with heavy concentrations in Iraq, Syria, the United States, and throughout much of Europe.

Assyrians often come from families where tradition is important and have been raised celebrating Assyrian culture and customs; however, meeting other Assyrians who share these values can be challenging. Whether people are seeking friendship, romance, marriage or the ability to chat with Assyrians all over the world, AssyrianCupid will meet their needs, directing them to potential matches. As the website owners say, “Preserving the Assyrian culture and way of life is so vital to those who cherish it.

Potential website members will need to supply basic information, including gender and location, and then select a user name to begin the simple registration process. To make registration and searching for matches as user-friendly as possible, Assyrian Cupid also allows users to sign in through its Facebook app.